1921 Persian Coup d’Etat, refers to several major events in Persia in 1921, which eventually led to the establishment of the Pahlavi dynasty as the ruling house of the country in 1925. In the aftermath of the 1917 Russian Revolution, the evaporation of Imperial Russia should have marked a positive turning point for the Qajar Dynasty, but instead, it eventually led to their overthrow. Russia and Britain had dominated Iranian affairs as initially rivals than allies for most of the 19th century through the first half of the war, yet with the 1917 Russian Revolution removed one of those two oppressive foreign powers from the equation.
The Qajar monarchy, crippled by internal dissension and by the infantilizing effects of having two hegemonic powers controlling their affairs for over a century, might have now had an opening to rebuild its authority. Unfortunately for Ahmad Shah Qajar, though, while the Russians were no longer an issue the British weren’t going anywhere. They negotiated the Anglo-Persian Agreement of 1919 with Ahmad Shah, which stipulated British rights over all of Iran’s oil fields in return for the British military, infrastructure, and financial aid. It was a terrible deal for the Iranians, criticized both within Iran and internationally, but Ahmad Shah had little choice but to accept it. Many, including local British officials, feared that the withdrawal of British troops from northern Persia would be followed by an attack on Tehran with Bolshevik backing and looked for preventive measures. Others hoped that the signing of the pending Perso-Soviet treaty of friendship would relieve the threat and open new possibilities for the country.
Under these circumstances, we expect from both cabinets, one representing Reza Khan’s Cossack Brigade whilst the other being the cabinet of Ahmad Shah Qajar representing the Qajar Dynasty, to resurrect these events from history books and encyclopedia; by choosing, enhancing, rearranging their own pathways, and with that to generate their own timeline throughout the conference. It’s now at the hands of the members of the two cabinets; will they manage the coup d’état or the Qajar will continue to the ruling?